Connecting a circuit in electronics is the most basic task that any young inventor should start of with. We can make our electronics work only with a complete circuit. A circuit is a network of electronic components which when connected perform a specific task or a function.
Our Basic circuit will be including only a 9V battery and it is completely safe. It is recommended that you also refer to Basic Safety and Introduction for Young Engineers for more detailed understanding of Safety Requirements.
In this activity you will turn ON a LED with the help of a 9V battery. This is the first every step that you should take on in to electronics.
- 2 x LED’s
- 1 x 9V Battery
- 1 x 1K Resistor
- Male to Male Jumper Cables
You can find these components at your nearest radio shack or an online store.
How does the basic electronic circuit work?
The 9V battery in our circuit will power the LED on, the resistor in the circuit will restrict the heavy flow of current in the circuit and hence prevent the damage to the LED. Incase we connect the LED without the resistor, that is probably the last time we will see our LED glow.
Breadboard is used to mount or build temporary electronic circuits without soldering. It is good for hobbyist who like to experiment. The breadboard is divided in 2 parts : Power Rails and Breadboard Area. The Power Rails are used to connect the power sources on the breadboard for the circuit. The Breadboard Area is used to mount the other important components of the circuit.
Light Emitting Diode also commonly referred to as LED. An LED emits light when a current passes through it. They are commonly used for indications and are well seen across many appliances and electronic devices.
A LED has two terminals: Positive and Negative.
The positive terminal is slightly longer than the negative terminal. Positive in electronics is mostly denoted by the color RED. Negative / Ground in electronics is mostly denoted by the color BLACK
Resistors are basically used to reduce the flow of current in the circuit. Resistors protect the components in the circuit from receiving excessive current which in turn would damage or burn out the electronic components. Below is the color code chart for resistor values. You can skip reading codes but make sure you can refer to the labels on your resistor packings.
How does the LED glow?
The battery which is the power source starts the flow of electrons from the negative to the positive terminal of the Battery. The electrons when they pass through the LED (Light Emitting Diode) excite the electrons in the LED and hence they emit light out. This light emitted out by the electrons makes the LED glow.
When you turn on the circuit, current will flow from the battery through the resistor and into the LED, causing it to light up. You can experiment with different values of resistors and LEDs to create different effects and colors.