Digital system design is process of designing or developing systems which represent information using a binary system. It’s easier to store, reproduce, transmit & manipulate digital data & cheaper/easier to design such systems.

## 1. Number Systems & Codes

- Decimal
- Binary
- Hexadecimal
- Octal systems
- Interconversions
- Signed & Unsigned Binary numbers
- Complements
- Binary Arithmetic: Addition & Subtraction using 1’s & 2’s complements

## 2. Binary Codes

- s-Decimal codes (BCD, Excess-3, 8421, 2421), Error Detection codes (Parity generation & Detection), Reflected code, Alphanumeric codes (EBCDIC, ASCII), Study of Binary logic with logic gates.

## 3. Boolean Algebra

- Postulates & Theorems, Boolean functions and their Algebraic manipulation, Canonical & Standard forms, Minterms & Maxterms. Simplification of Boolean functions: K-maps, POS & SOP simplification and their inter conversions, NAND & NOR implementation, Plotting & Reading of K-map using VEM.

## 4. Combinational Logic

- Design Procedure for Combinational logic circuits, Design & Analysis of Half Adder, Full Adder, Subtractor, Code Conversion, binary Parallel Adder, Look-ahead Carry generator, Decimal Adder (BCD Adder), Magnitude Comparator, Decoders, Combinational logic implementation, Demultiplexers, Encoders, Multiplexers, Boolean function implementation with multiplexers. Design of Seven-segment display, Parity generator, checker.

## 5. Flip-flops

- Basic flip-flop circuit, Clocked RS flip-flop, D flip-flop, JK flip-flop, T flip-flop, Triggering of flip-flops, Master Slave flip-flop, Edge triggered flip-flops: their schematic symbols, truth table & Excitation table, conversion between different types of flip flops

## 6. Sequential Circuits

- Design procedure for sequential circuits using state diagrams, state table, state equations, state reduction and assignment, Circuit implementation, Moore & Mealy Machine. Finite state machine. Design and analysis of counters, Modulo Counters, Synchronous, Ripple and ring counters (Switch tail, Johnson), Application of counters, Timing Sequences, Word time generation, timing

## 7. Registers

- SISO, SIPO, PISO, PIPO, Register with parallel load, Shift registers, Universal shift register.

## 8. Design of Arithmetic circuits

- Adders: Carry Save, Carry Look Ahead, Carry Select Adder delta delay. Multipliers: Wallace Tree, Braun Multiplier, Restoring and Non Restoring Dividers.

## 9. Digital Logic Families

- Characteristics of Digital ICs, TTL-Operation of TTL NAND gate, Active pull-up, Open Collector output, Wired AND, three state (or tri-state) output, Schottky TTL, ECL. Characteristics of MOSFET’s, CMOS Inverter, NAND and NOR, CMOS to TTL and TTL to CMOS interfacing.